1. SEAMLESS INFORMATION EXCHANGE
Notice and choice are among the most important principles of fair information practice. Responsible data collectors provide individuals with clear advance notice about the types of data they collect and how that data will be treated. They also provide individuals with the means to choose what data they provide for specific purposes. (Of course, individuals who choose not to provide essential data in some situations might be denied services as a consequence.) Traditional means of providing notice and choice generally require individuals to divert their attention away from the task at hand in order to read or listen to lengthy explanations and answer questions. When such disruptions occur frequently, individuals are unlikely to pay close attention to them. On the Internet, individuals typically wander from site to site without such interruptions. However, if most Internet content and service providers provided notice and choice through traditional means, interruptions would be a common occurrence. Fortunately, a number of alternative mechanisms may facilitate the provision of notice and choice over telecommunications networks while preserving the seamless browsing experience. One way to simplify notice and choice is to provide standard notices with consistent choice options. Currently, some organizations are experimenting with privacy rating structures that classify each Web site into one of several categories based on the site's information practices. For example, one category might be used for sites that do not reveal information collected from visitors, while another category might be used for sites that may trade or sell information they collect from visitors. Sites rated under such systems display icons on their pages that notify individuals of their information practices. This solution provides individuals with a means of quickly determining a site's information practices. However, the number of information practice categories must remain small if the category icons are to remain easily distinguishable. But with only a limited number of categories, it may not be possible to encode all details about information practices that individuals might find important. For example, individuals might want to visit sites that may reveal personal information to third parties only if that information is limited to names and contact information and does not include transactional data. In addition, because these systems rely on visual icons, individuals must consciously remember to look for these icons at every site they visit and take additional actions to confirm that the icon has not been forged. Some of the problems inherent in icon-based systems can be overcome by a machine-readable label system. The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is one such system.1 PICS was originally developed as a user-empowerment approach to protecting children from Internet content that their parents consider objectionable. It is an infrastructure for associating descriptions, called labels, with documents and Web sites on the Internet. PICS can accommodate any labeling vocabulary: currently several vocabularies are in use that indicate either age-appropriateness or the presence of potentially objectionable content such as offensive language or nudity. A label is not normally visible when a document is displayed to a user; instead, when a PICS-compliant browser is used, the browser reads the PICS label and determines if the associated document meets the user's criteria for display. If a document fails to meet the user's criteria, it is blocked, unless the user chooses to override the block. As of December 1996, Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 is PICS compliant, as are a number of stand-alone filtering products. This user-empowerment approach has played an important role in public discussion, both in the U.S. and around the world, of how best to protect children from objectionable content without introducing government censorship. The PICS technology also offers promise in the privacy realm for user empowerment through automated notice and choice.2 Labeling vocabularies might be developed to describe the information practices of organizations that collect data over the Internet. For example, a vocabulary might encode the categories used in existing icon-based systems. Other vocabularies might also employ multiple dimensions, for example, one dimension for practices pertaining to each type of information a site collects (demographic information, contact information, transactional data, etc.). Individuals might choose to have their browsers automatically block sites that do not have information practices consistent with their personal privacy preferences. The PICS infrastructure allows sites to describe their own information practices or for independent monitoring organizations to compose and distribute labels describing a site's practices. Unlike objectionable content, however, a site's information practices are not immediately visible to a casual observer. Thus, the most effective notice about information practices is likely to come from the Web sites themselves. In order to provide the most flexibility for both individuals and Internet content providers, it would be useful if browsers could negotiate information practices with content providers automatically, rather than just blocking access to those sites with undesirable practices. For example, if a Web site does not have practices consistent with an individual's preferences, the browser might contact the site and ask how the individual might be accommodated. The server could respond by agreeing to honor the individual's preferences, by offering a restricted portion of the site in which the individual's preferences will be honored, or by providing an explanation as to why the individual's preferences cannot be honored or an incentive for the individual to access the site even though it does not honor the stated preferences. The PICS infrastructure cannot currently support such a negotiation; however, it could be expanded to include a negotiation protocol. Web negotiation protocols are currently under development by W3C and other organizations. Once a negotiation protocol is developed, it will take some time to incorporate it into Web browsers and servers. Another possible extension of the PICS infrastructure might be used to specify the conditions under which an individual would allow the automatic transfer of certain types of information. Such information might include contact information needed for business transactions, or demographic and personal preference information used by Web sites to customize the services they provide. Automated transfer of this information would be more convenient for users than typing the information each time they visit a site, and users could set up their browsers to ensure transfers only to Web sites that have certain information practices. The user empowerment tools described above depend on cooperation between individuals and information gathering organizations. When there are mutually acceptable terms for transfer of individual information and conditions on its use, these tools allow the negotiation and information transfer to happen in the background, without consuming the individual's valuable time and attention. The opportunity to automate the notice and choice process is a major advantage of the Internet over other media for commercial interaction. As in the physical world, however, these tools do not guarantee that mutually acceptable terms will always be found: depending on market conditions, individuals may or may not find privacy-friendly choices available.
2. AUTOMATED PRIVACY AUDITS
While the approaches outlined here facilitate the seamless exchange of information about data collectors' information practices and individuals' privacy preferences, they do not ensure that data collectors will report their information practices accurately. Independent labeling services can label bad actors once they have been identified, but it may be difficult to detect sites that violate their reported practices. An audit may help a site to convince consumers of its good information practices and to distinguish it from other sites that may dishonestly report their practices. However, traditional audits are likely to be prohibitively expensive for most Web site operators. It may be possible to use technology to automate the information practice audit process to some extent. For example, systems might be developed to systematically reveal decoy data to Web sites and monitor the propagation of that data. Further work is needed to develop techniques for automating the information practice auditing process.
3. DATA AND COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY
It is important to recognize that the technologies presented here address only part of the problem. Even the most privacy-friendly information policies may be thwarted if data collectors do not protect their communications and databases. Security precautions should be taken to prevent communications from being intercepted and databases from being compromised. Organizations should develop procedures to protect passwords and prevent employees from accessing data for unauthorized purposes. Data and communications security is an important component of all privacy protection schemes, whether the data in question was collected over the Internet or by traditional means.
4. Privacy as an Assignable Right
The ideal solution for commercial consumer privacy is to rely on market principles rather than blanket regulation. As background, consider the work of economist Ronald Coase, who won the Nobel Prize for this insight among others. If you establish a right--whether it's for clean air, privacy, a pound of potatoes or a copy of a newsletter--that right will be allocated efficiently in a free market, regardless to whom it is worth more.3 That is, the market looks at the difference between the two sides' preferences, and the right goes to whomever values it more; a corresponding amount of value may change hands in the opposite direction. In the context of privacy, the first question is whether Alice values her right to privacy more than WonderWidgets values the right to call her at home at 9 pm. If she does, she will effectively pay WonderWidgets for her privacy by foregoing the opportunity to receive a fee from the company. On the other hand, if she values her privacy less, she may sell the privacy--the right to call her--to WonderWidgets for that amount.
A "cookie" is a small piece of information stored by a web server on a web browser so it can be later read back from that browser. Cookies are useful for enabling the browser to remember information specific to a given user. We place both permanent and temporary cookies in your computer's hard drive. The cookies do not contain any of your personally identifiable information.
6. Sharing of personal information
7. Software Disclaimer
8. types of Personal Data collected
The University collects a variety of personal and sensitive data to meet one of its lawful bases, as referenced above. Most often the data is used for academic admissions, enrollment, educational programs, job hiring, provision of medical services, participation in research, development and community outreach. Data typically includes name, address, transcripts, work history, information for payroll, research subject information, medical and health information (for student health services, or travel), and donations. If you have specific questions regarding the collection and use of your personal data, please contact the Office of Information Security at email@example.com. If a data subject refuses to provide personal data that is required by the University in connection with one of the University’s lawful bases to collect such personal data, such refusal may make it impossible for the University to provide education, employment, research or other requested services.
Under the CCPA, among other rights, California consumers have the right to: Request that a business that collects a consumer's personal data disclose the categories and specific pieces of personal data that a business has collected about consumers. Request that a business delete any personal data about the consumer that a business has collected. Request that a business that sells a consumer's personal data, not sell the consumer's personal data. If you make a request, we have one month to respond to you. If you would like to exercise any of these rights, please contact us
We would like to make sure you are fully aware of all of your data protection rights. Every user is entitled to the following: The right to access – You have the right to request copies of your personal data. We may charge you a small fee for this service. The right to rectification – You have the right to request that we correct any information you believe is inaccurate. You also have the right to request that we complete the information you believe is incomplete. The right to erasure – You have the right to request that we erase your personal data, under certain conditions. The right to restrict processing – You have the right to request that we restrict the processing of your personal data, under certain conditions. The right to object to processing – You have the right to object to our processing of your personal data, under certain conditions. The right to data portability – You have the right to request that we transfer the data that we have collected to another organization, or directly to you, under certain conditions. If you make a request, we have one month to respond to you. If you would like to exercise any of these rights, please contact us.
11. Advertising Partners Privacy Policies
12. Third-Party Privacy Policies
13. Children's Information
Another part of our priority is adding protection for children while using the internet. We encourage parents and guardians to observe, participate in, and/or monitor and guide their online activity. Website Name does not knowingly collect any Personal Identifiable Information from children under the age of 13. If you think that your child provided this kind of information on our website, we strongly encourage you to contact us immediately and we will do our best efforts to promptly remove such information from our records.